The end of the cold war during the second half of 1989 also culminated in the Bretton Woods institutions joining the surviving superpower, the United States, in galvanising changes in the world order and for Sub-Saharan Africa. Multiparty, democratic elections were part of the constraints for accessing international finance. This left part of the North Africa and Middle East regimes to continue because of its special oil relationship with the West. In implementing competitive leadership change to replace the post-colonial One-Party-State system, a new process of national consultative conventions in former Francophone, Anglophone and Lusophone countries started putting together new draft constitutions, establishing function parliaments whilst reforming the public service to now include Election Management Bodies (EMB) as well as parliamentary mandated Election Commissions (ECs) established through the new Electoral Acts. This structure was and continues to be responsible for managing the six key dimensions of an election: delimitation, voter and candidate registration, campaigning, polling, collating and the announcement of results. The actual start for the continent to implement the new democratic norms was Benin 1991.

Évoquer les questions environnementales en Afrique est indissociable de la notion de crises, de dégradation, que ce soit des ressources ou des paysages qui leurs sont associés. Dans les discours, comme dans les représentations, ces processus de dégradation seraient principalement causés par les sociétés africaines dont les modes de gestion et de valorisation des ressources sont souvent remises en cause et qualifiées de sous-développés, voir «arriérés».

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